|Experiments in modeling recent Indian fertility pattern
|Ujjaval Srivastava, Kaushalendra Kumar Singh, Anjali Pandey, and Neeraj Narayan
|Scientific Reports, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-85959-z
|Modelling is a well-established concept for understanding the typical shape and pattern of age-specific fertility. The distribution of India's age-specific fertility rate (ASFR) is unimodal and positively skewed and is distinct from the ASFR of the developed countries. The existing models (P-K model, Gompertz model, Skew-normal model and G-P model considered here) that were developed, based on the experiences of the developed countries, failed to fit the single-year age-specific fertility pattern for India as a whole and for the six selected states. Our study has proposed four flexible models, to capture the diverse age pattern of fertility, observed in the Indian states. The proposed models were compared in three ways; among themselves, with the original models and with the popular Hadwiger model. The parameters of these proposed models were estimated through the Non-Linear Least Squares Method. To find the model with best fit, we used the corrected version of Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc). Optimization of the four original models was successfully done. When the model was fitted to the empirical data of the 4th round of the National Family Health Survey conducted in 2015-2016, the results of this study showed that all the four proposed models outperform their corresponding original models and the Hadwiger model. When comparison among the proposed models was done, the Modified Gompertz Model provided the best fit for India, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat. Whereas, the Modified P-K model gave the best fit for West Bengal, Tripura and Karnataka. The Modified G-P model is the most suitable model for Punjab. Although our proposed models illustrated the fitting of ASFR for India as a whole and the selected six states only, it provides an important tool for the policymakers and the government authorities to project fertility rates and to understand the fertility transitions in India and various other states.