|Trends in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Associated Socioeconomic and Household Environmental Factors among Women in Nepal: Findings from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys|
||Kritika Rana, Puspa Ghimire, Romila Chimoriya, and Ritesh Chimoriya
||Obesities, Volume 1(2), 113-135; DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/Obesities1020011
Household solid fuel use
||This study aimed to examine the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and to determine the associated socioeconomic and household environmental factors among women in Nepal. Using nationally representative data from the 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016 cross-sectional Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHSs) (n = 33,507), the prevalence of overweight–obesity (body mass index (BMI) = 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI = 30 kg/m2) among women aged 15–49 years were examined. From the latest NDHS 2016, non-pregnant women with recorded anthropometric measurements (n = 6165) were included in the final analyses. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the socioeconomic and household environmental factors associated with BMI = 25 and BMI = 30. Between 1996 and 2016, the prevalence of overweight–obesity increased from 1.8% to 19.7%, while the prevalence of obesity increased from 0.2% to 4.1%. Age, marital status, wealth index, province of residence, type of cooking fuel, and household possessions—refrigerator and bicycle were significantly associated with having overweight–obesity and obesity. Similarly, educational status, religion, type of toilet facility, and household possessions—television and mobile phone were significantly associated with having overweight–obesity. Given the alarming increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nepalese women, there is an urgent need for interventions addressing these critical socioeconomic and household environmental factors.