|Households access to improved drinking water sources and toilet facilities in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis based on 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey|
||Zewudu Andualem, Henok Dagne, Zelalem Nigussie Azene, Asefa Adimasu Taddese, Baye Dagnew, Roman Fisseha, Atalay Goshu Muluneh, and Yigizie Yeshaw
||BMJ Open, Volume 11, Issue 3; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042071
||Objective: This study aimed to assess households access to improved drinking water sources and sanitation facilities and their associated factors in Ethiopia.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Participants: Household heads.
Primary outcomes: Access to improved drinking water sources and toilet facilities.
Methods: We conducted an in-depth secondary data analysis of 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. Data from a total of 16?650 households and 645 clusters were included in the analysis. The households were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. Multilevel binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with access to an improved drinking water source and toilet facilities. Adjusted OR with a 95%?CI was reported with p value <0.05 was used to declare a significant association between the covariates and the outcome variables.
Results: The proportions of households’ access to improved sources of drinking water and toilet facilities were 69.94% (95% CI: 69.23% to 70.63%) and 25.36% (95% CI: 24.69% to 26.03%), respectively. Households headed by women and households with a better wealth index were positively associated with access to improved drinking water sources. Whereas rural households, >/= 30 min round trip to obtain drinking water and region were factors negatively associated with households access to improved drinking water sources. A higher probability of having access to improved toilet facilities: households with heads who had attained higher education, households having better access to improved sources of drinking water and households with better wealth index. While the following households were less likely to have access to improved toilet facilities: households with heads were widowed, households with four to six members, rural households and region.
Conclusion: The study found that the proportions of households’ access to improved drinking water sources and toilet facilities in Ethiopia were relatively low, which demands the need to tailor strategies to increase the coverage of access to improved drinking water sources and toilet facilities.