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Comparative assessment of overweight/obesity among rural and urban reproductive-age women in Ethiopia: Evidence from a cross-sectional 2016 national survey
Authors: Gizachew Worku Dagnew and Melash Belachew Asresie
Source: Nutrition and Health, DOI: 10.1177/0260106020982346
Topic(s): Alcohol consumption
Rural-urban differentials
Wealth Index
Country: Africa
Published: FEB 2021
Abstract: Background: Overweight/obesity has become a global health problem for both developed and developing regions. Nowadays, overweight/obesity among childrearing-age women has become rapidly increasing in both urban and rural areas. Aim: This study aimed to assess the variation of overweight/obesity among urban and rural reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. Methods: For this study, the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data were used. The survey was a community-based cross-sectional study, which used a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique to select the participants. A total of 13,451 reproductive-age women were included in the analysis. Both descriptive and analytical analysis was performed. A p-value of less than 0.05 was used as the measure of statistical significance. Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity among urban reproductive-age women was statistically higher (p = 21.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 18.2-25.1) than the rural women (p = 3.5%; 95% CI: 2.9%-4.2%). Women who attend secondary or above education, women in the age groups 25-34 and = 35 years, and high wealth index (rich) had higher odds of overweight/obesity in both urban and rural women. Moreover, women who were married, who had a large family size, and who have a history of alcohol intake had higher odds of overweight/obesity among urban women. Conclusions: Overweight/obesity among reproductive-age women is a public health problem in Ethiopia, especially for women who are living in urban settings. Therefore, it is important to establish targeted overweight reduction programs with particular emphasis on urban, older aged, educated, and married women. Additionally, encouraging the limitation of the number of family size and alcohol intake can reduce women's overweight/obesity.