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Trends of proximate low birth weight and associations among children under-five years of age: Evidence from the 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data
Authors: Mesfin Wudu Kassaw, Ayele Mamo Abebe, Ayelign Mengesha Kassie, Biruk Beletew Abate, and Seteamlak Adane Masresha
Source: PLOS ONE , PMCID: PMC7875362; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246587
Topic(s): Birth weight
Children under five
Rural-urban differentials
Country: Africa
Published: FEB 2021
Abstract: Background: Low birth weight puts a newborn at increased risk of death and illness, and limits their productivity in the adulthood period later. The incidence of low birth weight has been selected as an important indicator for monitoring major health goals by the World Summit for Children. The 2014 World Health Organization estimation of child death indicated that 4.53% of total deaths in Ethiopia were due to low birth weight. The aim of this study was to assess trends of proximate low birth weight and associations of low birth weight with potential determinants from 2011 to 2016. Methods: This study used the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data (EDHS) as data sources. According to the 2016 EDHS data, all the regions were stratified into urban and rural areas. The variable "size of child" measured according to the report of mothers before two weeks of the EDHS takes placed. The study sample refined from EDHS data and used for this further analysis were 7919 children. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association of proximate low birth weight and potential determinates of proximate low birth weight. But, the data were tested to model fitness and were fitted to Hosmer-Lemeshow-goodness of fit. Results: The prevalence of proximate low birth weight in Ethiopia was 26.9% (2132), (95%CI = 25.4, 27.9). Of the prevalence of child size in year from 2011 to 2016, 17.1% was very small, and 9.8% was small. In the final multivariate logistic regression model, region (AOR = xx), (955%CI = xx), Afar (AOR = 2.44), (95%CI = 1.82, 3.27), Somalia (AOR = 0.73), (95%CI = 0.55, 0.97), Benishangul-Gumz (AOR = 0.48), (95%CI = 0.35, 0.67), SNNPR (AOR = 0.67), (95%CI = 0.48, 0.93), religion, Protestant (AOR = 0.76), (95%CI = 0.60, 0.95), residence, rural (AOR = 1.39), (95%CI = 1.07, 1.81), child sex, female (AOR = 1.43), (95%CI = 1.29, 1.59), birth type, multiple birth during first parity (AOR = 2.18), (95%CI = 1.41, 3.37), multiple birth during second parity (AOR = 2.92), (95%CI = 1.86, 4.58), preparedness for birth, wanted latter child (AOR = 1.26), (95%CI = 1.09, 1.47), fast and rapid breathing (AOR = 1.22), (95%CI = 1.02, 1.45), maternal education, unable to read and write (AOR = 1.46), (95%CI = 1.56, 2.17), and maternal age, 15-19 years old (AOR = 1.86), (95%CI = 1.19, 2.92) associated with proximate low birth weight. Conclusions: The proximate LBW prevalence as indicated by small child size is high. Region, religion, residence, birth type, preparedness for birth, fast and rapid breathing, maternal education, and maternal age were associated with proximate low birth weight. Health institutions should mitigating measures on low birth weight with a special emphasis on factors identified in this study.