|Trends in the Prevalence and Associated Contributing Factors of Stunting in Children Under Five Years of Age. Secondary Data Analysis of 2005, 2010 and 2014-2015 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys|
||Reverien Rutayisire, Clementine Kanazayire, Germaine Tuyisenge, and Cyprien Munyanshongore
||Rwanda Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 1; DOI: 10.4314/rjmhs.v3i1.9
||Background: Stunting affects more than 161 million children under five years of age worldwide. Rwanda has a high prevalence of stunted children under five years of age (~38%) according to the 2014-2015 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rates of stunting in Rwanda using the Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey data of 2005, 2010 and 2014-2015.
Methods: The three Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey cross-sectional studies into consideration were conducted in 2005, 2010 and in 2014-2015. Stunting prevalence rates from those surveys were compared using Pearson's chi-squared tests and Marascuilo procedure using STATA (StataCorp. 2013. Stata Statistical Software: Release 13. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.).
Results: The Pearson's chi-squared tests and Marascuilo procedure used in this research confirmed a significant difference between the reported three RDHS stunting prevalence rates. The trends in the stunting prevalence rates among children under five years of age showed a decrease of 13% in stunting prevalence rate, falling from 51% in 2005 to 38% in 2014-15.
Conclusion: A statistical analysis based on 2005, 2010 and 2014-15 RDHS surveys datasets confirmed that there is a statistically significant reduction in stunting prevalence rates over that decade(from 51% in 2005 to 38% in 2014-2015). The main persistent associated factors with stunting were the age, sex, size at birth, residence place of the child, and the mother’s educational level and household wealth index.