|Trends and determinants of an acceptable antenatal care coverage in Ethiopia, evidence from 2005-2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey; Multivariate decomposition analysis
|Tilahun Yemanu Birhan and Wullo Sisay Seretew
|Archives of Public Health, Volume 78, Article number: 129
|Background: An acceptable antenatal care (ANC4+) is defined as attending at least four antenatal care visit, received at least one dose of tetanus toxoid (TT) injections and consumed 100 iron-folic acids (IFA) tablets/syrup during the last pregnancy. Since maternal health care service utilization continues to be an essential indicator for monitoring the improvements of maternal and child health outcomes. This study aimed to analyze the trends and determinants that contributed to the change in an acceptable antenatal care visit over the last 10 years in Ethiopia.
Methods: Nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted using 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey datasets. The data were weighted and analyzed by STATA 14.1 software. Multivariate decomposition regression analysis was used to identify factors that contribute for the change in an acceptable antenatal care visit. A p-value < 0.05 was taken to declare statistically significant predictors to acceptable antenatal care visit.
Results: Among the reproductive age women the rate of an acceptable antenatal care visits was increased from 16% in 2005 to 35% in 2016 in Ethiopia. In the multivariate decomposition analysis, about 29% of the increase in acceptable antenatal care visit was due to a difference in composition of women (endowments) across the surveys. Residence, religion, husband educational attainment, and wealth status was the main source of compositional change factors for the improvements of an acceptable antenatal care visit. Almost two-thirds of an overall change in acceptable antenatal care visit was due to the difference in coefficients/ change in behavior of the population. Religion, educational attainment (both women and husband), and residence are significantly contributed to the change in full antenatal care visit in Ethiopia over the last decades.
Conclusion: Besides the relevance of receiving an acceptable antenatal care visit for pregnant women and their babies, an acceptable antenatal care visit was slightly increased over time in Ethiopia. Women’s characteristics and behavior change were significantly associated with the change in acceptable antenatal care visits. Public interventions needed to improve acceptable antenatal care coverage, women’s education, and further advancing of health care facilities in rural communities should be done to maintain the further improvements acceptable antenatal care visits.