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Effects of Household Air Pollution From Solid Fuel Use and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Child Health Outcomes in Indonesia
Authors: Made Ayu Hitapretiwi Suryadhi, Kawuli Abudureyimu, Saori Kashima, and Takashi Yorifuji
Source: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001554
Topic(s): Child health
Environmental health
Tobacco use
Country: Asia
Published: APR 2019
Abstract: Objective: We assessed the combined effect of household air pollution from solid fuel use and from environmental tobacco smoke and child health outcomes in Indonesia. Methods: Survey subjects self-reported solid fuel use, frequency of indoor smoking, and health outcomes in children. We then evaluated the effect of a combined exposure using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Children exposed to high levels of pollution from solid fuel use had an increased risk of low birth weight, neonatal death, infant death, and acute lower respiratory infection. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke increased the risk of acute lower respiratory infection. The combined effect of both pollution sources outweighed the independent risk of each exposure alone. Conclusions: Solid fuel use and environmental tobacco smoke independently increased the risk and child health outcomes and the combined exposure showed the additive effect.