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Determinants of BCG vaccination coverage in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey
Authors: Asmamaw Ketemaw Tsehay, Getasew Tadesse Worku, and Yihun Mulugeta Alemu
Source: BMJ Open, Volume 9, Issue 2
Topic(s): Antenatal care
Rural-urban differentials
Wealth Index
Country: Africa
Published: DEC 2018
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the determinants of BCG vaccination in Ethiopia from 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). Setting: Since Ethiopia has nine regional states and two administrative cities, sample was taken from all the divisions. The population-based sample was intended to provide estimates of key indicators for the country. Participant: The sampling frame used for the 2016 EDHS is the Ethiopia Population and Housing Census. From 15?683 women recorded in EDHS dataset, women with no child (n=10?379) were excluded from the study. Therefore, the total sample size for this study was 5304 women. The outcome variable was BCG immunisation status of children. Result: Out of the study participants (n=5304), the majority were in between 20 and 34 years of age (73.8%). The median age of the respondents was 28.4 (SD=±6.5) years old. Prevalence of BCG vaccination was 63.6% (n=3373) and BCG vaccination coverage in urban residents was higher (88%) than rural residents (57.3%). Mothers’ age between 20 up to 34 (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.48; 95%?CI: 1.13 to 1.93) and between 35 up to 49 (AOR=1.83; 95%?CI: 1.35 to 2.46) were more likely to vaccinate their child’s than those mothers’ age less than 20. Mothers settled in urban areas were two times more likely to vaccinate their child’s than those living in rural areas (AOR=1.94; 95%?CI: 1.45 to 2.60). Mothers with greater antenatal visits show higher BCG vaccination, Antenatal Care (ANC) 4 and above (AOR=3.48; 95%?CI: 2.91 to 4.15). BCG vaccination is higher for mothers delivered at non-governmental organisation health facility than home (AOR=2.9; 95%?CI: 1.69 to 4.96). Maternal occupation and wealth index also had a significant association with BCG vaccination. Conclusion: BCG vaccination coverage, in this study, was lower and determinant factors for BCG vaccination were residence, mother’s age, place of delivery, mother’s antenatal visit, wealth index and mother’s occupation.