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Polysubstance use behavior among the male population in Ethiopia: Findings from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey
Authors: Eshetu Girma, Tesfahun Mulatu, and Bezawit Ketema
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 34(3)
Topic(s): Alcohol consumption
Men's health
Country: Africa
Published: AUG 2020
Abstract: Background: Substance use is predominantly ass o ciated with male behavior and is becoming one of the major public health challenges across the globe, including in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitude and predictors of polysubstance use behavior among males in Ethiopia . Met h ods: Data were extracted from the 2016 Ethiopia Demog raphic and Health Survey (EDHS). From a total of 12,688 male participants in the EDHS, a sample was extracted of 7, 931 males who used at least one substance ( alcohol, khat or tobacco ) during the time of the survey. Those who used more than one substance were considered as polysubstance users, which was the outcome of interest. Descriptive statistics was computed and displayed with tables and graph. L ogistic regression was carried out to identify predicto r s of polysubstance use , and statistical significance was declared at a 95% confidence level . Results: Of the total sam ple of 12,688 males in the 2016 EDHS , 7,931 (62.5%) we re currently using at least one substance. R egion al distribution of current substa n ce users show s that Amhara (18.5%), Tigray (14.2%) and Oromia (12.8%) ha ve the highest percentage of substance users , respectively . Among the current any substance users, 15.0% use cigarette s daily or on som e days – 74.7 % of these a re daily users. Ninetee n per cent of current male substance users in Eth iopia a re polysubstance users. The main substances consumed a re alcohol only (53.1%) , follo wed by k hat only (25.9%). Polysubstance use behavior can be predicted by residence ( urban residence : OR: 1.78; CI: 1 . 35, 2.34 ) , educational status (secondary education : OR: 1.50; CI: 1.19, 1.89) and marital status (no longer living together : OR: 2.85; CI: 1.58, 5.15). Region, religion, wealth status, age, family size and media exposure a re other factors significantly as s ociated with polysubstance use behavior . Conclusion s : Polysubstance use behavior among males is widespread in all regions of the country . S ocio - demogra phic factors and access to media are predictors of poly substance use. Therefore, in addition to law enf o rcement such as prohibition of advertising , there is a need to investigate underlying genetic, structural, policy and behavioral determinants of polysubstance use so that holistic interventions can be designed to target multiple substance use simultaneous l y. [ Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2020; 34( 3 ): 000 - 000 ] Key words : A lcohol, c igarette s , EDHS, Ethiopia, khat, males, polysubstance use, substance use