Back to browse results
Determinants of Anemia in Pregnancy: Findings from the Ethiopian Health and Demographic Survey
Authors: Ataklti Gebretsadik Woldegebriel, Gebremedhin Gebregziabiher Gebrehiwot, Abraham Aregay Desta, Kiros Fenta Ajemu, Asfawosen Aregay Berhe, Tewolde Wubayehu Woldearegay, and Nega Mamo Bezabih
Source: Anemia, 2020: 2902498; DOI: 10.1155/2020/2902498
Topic(s): Anemia
Maternal health
Country: Africa
Published: JUN 2020
Abstract: In Ethiopia, anemia during pregnancy is a major public health problem and affects both the mother's and their child's health. There is a scarcity of community-based evidence on determinants of anemia among pregnant women in the country. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the determinants of anemia among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Method. This study was based on the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) that used a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3080 pregnant women. Data analysis was done using STATA v.14. Variables with P value <0.05 in the bivariate analysis were candidates for the multivariable analysis to identify independent determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated at 95% confidence interval (CI). Results. The overall prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 41% of which 20% were moderately anemic, 18%, mildly anemic, and 3%, severely anemic. The following were significantly associated with anemia during pregnancy: an age of 30-39 years, receiving no education (AOR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.45, 2.49), belonging to the poorest wealth quintile (AOR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.22, 1.60), being a Muslim (AOR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.69, 2.65), number of house members being 4-6 (AOR = 1.44; 95% CI 1.05, 1.97), number of under-five children being two (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.10, 1.97), head of the household being a female (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.61, 2.54), current pregnancy wanted later (AOR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.23, 1.63), no terminated pregnancy (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.15, 1.93), and an age of 13-17 years at the first sexual intercourse (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.291, 3.00). Conclusions. The study revealed that more than one-third of the pregnant women in Ethiopia were found anemic. Its prevalence varied among regions in which the highest (62.7%) and the lowest (11.9%) were from Somali and Addis Ababa, respectively. Hence, efforts should be made by concerned bodies to intervene in terms of the identified risk factors.