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Smoking Intensity and Associated Factors among Male Smokers in Ethiopia: Further Analysis of 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey
Authors: Simegnew Handebo, Setognal Birara, Ayenew Kassie, Adane Nigusie, and Wallelign Aleminew
Source: BioMed Research International, 2020(Article ID 4141370): 1-7; DOI: 10.1155/2020/4141370
Topic(s): Men's health
Tobacco use
Country: Africa
Published: JUL 2020
Abstract: Background. Smoking invariably has health, social, economic, and environmental consequences in Ethiopia. Reducing and quitting cigarette smoking improves individual health and increases available household funds for food, education, and better economic productivity. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing cigarette smoking intensity and associated factors among male smokers in Ethiopia. Methods. The data were extracted from the 2016 national cross-sectional Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. Our study used data from the standardized and adapted men’s questionnaire. The study included a total of 391 (weighted) smokers who at least smoked one manufactured cigarette per day. The data were collected using a two-stage cluster design which includes selection of enumeration areas and then selection of households. The number of manufactured cigarettes smokers smoked per day was used to measure smoking intensity. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the study findings. Bivariable and multivariable truncated negative binomial Poisson regression models were employed to determine smoking intensity. Results. The finding showed that on average men smoked weighted nine cigarettes per day. One in every five of the smokers (21.2%) smoked 10 cigarettes per day. Smokers living in rural areas (, 95% CI: 0.244, 0.756), currently married (, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.91), formerly married (, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96), richer men (, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.90), and richest men (, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.87) were associated with lower smoking intensity. Smokers in the Somali (, 95% CI: 1.29, 6.11), Harari (, 95% CI: 1.14, 10.51), and Dire Dawa (, 95% CI: 1.23, 7.80) regions; older age (, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.40); affiliated with Protestant religion (, 95% CI: 1.12, 2.92); poorer men (, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.27); watched television (, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.35); drunk alcohol (, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.82); and completed primary (, 95% CI: 1.01, 0.317) and higher education (, 95% CI: 1.88, 4.67) were positively associated with smoking intensity. Conclusion. Male smokers in Ethiopia smoked intensively with an average of nine manufactured cigarettes per day. Tobacco control interventions should target the following: Eastern Ethiopia regions, older aged, affiliated with Protestant religion, poorer men, watched television, drunk alcohol, and primary and higher educational level.