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Prevalence and determinants of under-and over-nutrition among adult Kenyan women; evidence from the Kenya demographic and health survey 2008-09
Authors: PK Masibo, E Buluku, D Menya, and VC Malit
Source: East African Journal of Public Health , 11(1)
Topic(s): Nutrition
Women's health
Country: Africa
Published: SEP 2014
Abstract: Objective: To analyze the prevalence and determinants of over- and under-nutrition among Kenyan adult women with data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) (2008-09) Methods: A nationally representative sample of 5,916 women aged 20 to 49 years in 2008-2009 DHS data was analyzed. The dependant variable was women’s nutritional status determined as Body Mass Index (BMI). A BMI <18.5 was considered underweight, above 24.9 was considered overweight and a BMI above 29.9 was considered obese. Results: The mean age was 31.9 ± (8.4 SD) years while the mean BMI was 23.4 ± (4.6 SD) kg/m2. Three quarters of the women lived in rural areas and Rift valley province contributed a majority of the participants (26.9%). More than half of the women (54.7%) had achieved primary level of education, 68.5% were married at the time of the survey while 27% were working in agricultural sector. Thirty percent of Kenyan women had over-nutrition as measured by overweight and obesity while 11% were underweight. Regional differentials existed in the distribution of women’s nutritional status. Those living in Eastern province were 2 times significantly more likely to be undernourished compared to those living in Nairobi (OR: 2.0, CI; 1.0 – 4.2; p=0.045). Women living in households of lower, lowest and middle wealth quintiles were 80%, 70% and 50% respectively less likely to have over-nutrition compared to those from the highest wealth index households (p<0.001). Women who are married were 1.9 times (CI 1.2 to 3.2) more likely to have over-nutrition compared to those who were not married (p=0.007). Conclusion: The burden of over-nutrition was higher than under-nutrition among Kenyan women in the 2008- 09 DHS survey. The key determinants of under-nutrition include; household wealth, province of residence and education achievement. The key determinants of over-nutrition were; women’s age, marital status, smoking status and partner’s educational status.