|Factors affecting current khat chewing among male adults 15–59?years in Ethiopia, 2016: a multi-level analysis from Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey|
||Temesgen Yihunie Akalu, Adhanom Gebreegziabher Baraki, Haileab Fekadu Wolde, Ayenew Molla Lakew, and Kedir Abdela Gonete
||BMC Psychiatry, 20(21); DOI: 10.1186/s12888-020-2434-7
Regular khat chewing causes gingivitis, tooth loss, gastric disorders, cardiac complications, male impotence, sleeplessness, and several mental health problems. Based on the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016, 12% of women and 27% of men have reported having ever chewed khat. Even though khat addiction is a major public health problem, studies that consider both individual level and community level factors are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors affecting current khat chewing among male adults in Ethiopia.
Data from EDHS, a community-based cross-sectional study conducted from January 18, 2016, to June 27, 2016, was used. A multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was used to select participants. Both descriptive and analytical statistics were done. Bi-variable and multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors affecting current khat chewing. Adjusted Odds ratio (AOR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for variables with P-value 0.05 was used as a measure of association.
A total of 12,595 male adults were included. The prevalence of current khat chewing was 23.61% (95% CI: 22.87, 24.36). Age 20–24?years; (AOR?=?2.68, 95% CI: 2.02, 3.56), being uneducated (AOR?=?1.62, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.39), professional/technical/managerial job (AOR?=?3.59, 95% CI: 2.18, 5.91), Muslim religion (AOR?=?18.30, 95% CI: 13.54, 24.74), poorest wealth index (AOR?=?0.67, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.89), being divorced (AOR?=?0.38, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.69), history of alcohol drinking in the last 30?days (AOR?=?2.15, 95% CI: 1.69, 2.73), and history of cigarette smoking in the last 30?days (AOR?=?14.92, 95% CI: 10.88, 20.47), and Amhara region (AOR?=?0.07, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.14) were significantly associated with khat chewing.
Khat chewing remains high in Ethiopia with certain regional variations. The uneducated, older age, Alcohol and cigarette users, Muslims, and professional workers were at higher risk of khat chewing whereas the poorest wealth index and being divorced reduced its risk. Policymakers should consider a multi-faceted policy approach that accounts for regional variation and the identified risk factors to alleviate the problem.