|Adverse Infant Outcomes Associated with Caesarean Section Delivery in India|
||Tamala Gondwe, Kalpana Betha, G N Kusneniwar, Clareann H Bunker, Gong Tang, Hyagriv Simhan, and Catherine L Haggerty
||International Health, Published online; DOI: 10.1093/inthealth/ihz111
||Background: Caesarean section delivery is increasing worldwide and in India, yet little is known about the effect on infants. We examined the association between caesarean delivery and adverse infant outcomes in an Indian national survey, accounting for factors related to the mode of delivery.
Methods: Inverse probability weighted logistic regression analysis of the 2015-2016 India National Family Health Survey obtained adjusted ORs (aORs) and 95% CIs. Infant outcomes were maternal report of recent concomitant diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants age =6 mo and neonatal death.
Results: Of the 189 143 reported most recent singleton births, 15.4% were delivered by caesarean, 860 (3.2%) of all infants age =6 mo had concomitant diarrhoea and ARI and 3480 (1.8%) neonatal deaths were reported. In adjusted analysis, caesarean delivery was not associated with concomitant diarrhoea and ARI (aOR 0.96 [95% CI 0.71 to 1.32]) but was associated with neonatal death (aOR 1.19 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.39]).
Conclusions: Using nationally representative cross-sectional data for India, caesarean section delivery was found to be associated with neonatal death after accounting for factors associated with the mode of delivery. Prospective exploration of the relationship between caesarean delivery and adverse infant outcomes is warranted.
Keywords: India; cesarean section; infant health; neonatal death.