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Enablers and Barriers to the Utilization of Antenatal Care Services in India
Authors: Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Mansi Vijaybhai Dhami, Ebere Maureen Ude, Praween Senanayake, Uchechukwu L. Osuagwu, Akorede O. Awosemo, Pascal Ogeleka, Blessing Jaka Akombi, Osita Kingsley Ezeh, and Kingsley E. Agho
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(17): 3152; DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16173152
Topic(s): Antenatal care
Health care utilization
Maternal health
Country: Asia
Published: AUG 2019
Abstract: Antenatal care (ANC) reduces adverse health outcomes for both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth. The present study investigated the enablers and barriers to ANC service use among Indian women. The study used data on 183,091 women from the 2015–2016 India Demographic and Health Survey. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models (using generalised linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM) with the mlogit link and binomial family) that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between the study factors and frequency of ANC service use. More than half (51.7%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 51.1–52.2%) of Indian women had four or more ANC visits, 31.7% (95% CI: 31.3–32.2%) had between one and three ANC visits, and 16.6% (95% CI: 16.3–17.0%) had no ANC visit. Higher household wealth status and parental education, belonging to other tribes or castes, a woman’s autonomy to visit the health facility, residence in Southern India, and exposure to the media were enablers of the recommended ANC (=4) visits. In contrast, lower household wealth, a lack of a woman’s autonomy, and residence in East and Central India were barriers to appropriate ANC service use. Our study suggests that barriers to the recommended ANC service use in India can be amended by socioeconomic and health policy interventions, including improvements in education and social services, as well as community health education on the importance of ANC. Keywords: antenatal care; India; factors; Demographic and Health Survey; enablers; barriers