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Socioeconomic, Demographic, and Environmental Determinants of Under-5 Mortality in Ethiopia: Evidence from Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, 2016
Authors: Berhanu Teshome Woldeamanuel
Source: Child Development Research, 2019(Article ID 1073782): 1-15; DOI: 10.1155/2019/1073782
Topic(s): Childhood mortality
Children under five
Country: Africa
Published: MAY 2019
Abstract: Background. Though Ethiopia has made impressive progress in reducing child mortality in the past two decades, the reduction of under-five mortalities is a major concern for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) introduced in 2016 targeted to reduce under-5 mortality rate below 25 deaths of under-5 per 1,000 live births by 2030. This study aims to assess the risk factors attributed to under-five mortalities in Ethiopia region based on Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey 2016 dataset. Methods. The study was a secondary analysis of 2016, Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey and the information collected from 10,274 children born five years preceding the survey was considered in the study, and variables like maternal social and demographic characteristics, child demographic characteristics, and cultural and environmental factors were considered as determinants of under-five deaths. The study used descriptive statistics and logistic regression model to explore significant risk factors accredited to under-five deaths in Ethiopia. Results. Maternal education attainment, women age at first birth, women current age, child birth order, preceding birth interval, birth type, and occupation of mother were found significant predictors of under-five mortalities. Being born to mother with no education (OR=2.610, 95% CI: 1.598, 4.265), short birth spacing 1 to 18 months birth intervals (OR=2.164, 95% CI: 1.821, 2.570), birth order of five and above, and 11 to 17 years ages at birth (OR=1.556, 95% CI: 1.243, 1.949) were factors significantly associated with increased risk of under-five mortalities. Conclusion. The magnitude of under-five deaths in the study area was decreasing. However, under-five mortality rates have stayed higher in some regions. Therefore, interventions that focus on birth spacing, mothers living in Affar and Gambela, and uneducated mothers are required for improving child survival in Ethiopia.