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A nationally representative study on socio-demographic and geographic correlates, and trends in tobacco use in Nepal
Authors: Nipun Shrestha, Suresh Mehata, Pranil Man Singh Pradhan, Deepak Joshi, and Shiva Raj Mishra
Source: Scientific Reports, 9(2682); DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-39635-y
Topic(s): Tobacco use
Country: Asia
Published: FEB 2019
Abstract: Tobacco control still poses an immense challenge for the government of Nepal. Updated knowledge on the current pattern of tobacco use and its associated factors will be helpful for policy makers to curb the tobacco epidemic. This study fills this gap by, (i) exploring demographic, socio-economic and geographic correlates of current tobacco use using a nationally representative sample of 15–49-year adults from Nepal Demographic Health survey 2016, and (ii) examining the prevalence and trends of both smoking and non-smoking forms of tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of 15–49-year adults drawn from three consecutive Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) between 2006 and 2016.Among males, the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was higher than that of smoking (40.1% and 27.4% respectively), whereas among females smoking was more common than smokeless tobacco use (prevalence of 5.5% and 3.8% respectively). Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with older age and lower level of education. Among males, those living in urban areas were more likely to consume any form of tobacco. Residents of terai/plains were more likely to use smokeless tobacco. The concentration curves on cumulative proportion of tobacco use ranked by wealth quintiles showed tobacco use to be highest among the lowest socio-economic groups in both males and females in all three survey years. We found a decreasing trend of tobacco smoking and an increasing trend of smokeless tobacco use over the 10-year period. However, the consumption of both forms of tobacco increased in young males during the same period. Proper monitoring of adherence to directives of the anti-tobacco law should be ensured to curb the increasing burden of tobacco use among young males, and a similar effort is needed to sustain the decline in tobacco uses among other population groups in Nepal.