|Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Nepal: An Analysis through Individual, Empowerment, Family and Societal Level Factors|
||Koustuv Dalal, Shumei Wang, and Leif Svanström
||Journal of Research in Health Sciences, 14(4): 251-257
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
||Background: The current study estimated the national prevalence rate of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) in Nepal. Besides, the individual level, empowerment level, family and societal level factors were assessed to relate with the victims of IPAVW in Nepal.
Methods: Nationally representative sample of 4210 women of reproductive age (15-49 yr) were included in the study. Household surveys using two stage sampling procedures, face to face interview with pre-tested questionnaires were performed. Emotional, physical and sexual violence were target variables. A violence variable was constructed from these three types of violence. Individual level factors were measured by age, residency, education, religion and husband’s education. Empowerment factors included employment status and various decision making elements. Family and societal factors included economic status, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage index, history of family violence, husband’s controlling behavior and other issues. Cross tabulation with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were employed.
Results: Prevalence of emotional IPVAW was 17.5%, physical IPAVW 23.4% and sexual IPAVW 14.7%. Overall the prevalence of IPVAW in Nepal was 32.4%. Joint decision making for contraception, husband’s non-controlling behavior to wives and friendly feelings were emerged as less likely to be IPVAW perpetration.
Conclusions: The findings have immense policy importance as a nationally representative study and indicating necessity of more gender equality.
Keywords: Educational Status, Empowerment, Nepal, Risk Factors, Spouse Abuse, Women’s Health