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Non-specific effects of childhood vaccines on acute childhood morbidity among HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis
Authors: Adetokunboh OO, Uthman OA, and Wiysonge CS
Source: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 14(10): 2382-2390; DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2018.1516490
Topic(s): Child health
Country: Africa
  Multiple African Countries
Published: SEP 2018
Abstract: We examined the roles of determining factors responsible for acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea among immunised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa. This study used demographic and health surveys obtained from 27 sub-Saharan African countries. The outcome variable is defined as symptoms of acute respiratory infections or episode of diarrhoea in the child of an HIV-infected mother who is vaccinated with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis containing vaccines. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between individual and contextual factors. The odds of developing symptoms of acute respiratory infections increased among those living in communities with high unemployment rate (Odds ratio = 1.15, 95% credible interval 1.05 to 1.26). The odds of developing diarrhoea increased among young mothers such that children of women aged 15-24 years were two times likely to develop diarrhoea compared to children of women aged 35-49 years (Odds ratio = 2.22, 95% credible interval 1.66 to 2.93). Public healthcare programmes should target adolescent and young women, and their family members on how to prevent diarrhoea. Efforts should be made to identify the hotspots for development of acute respiratory diseases especially in communities with high rate of unemployment and to develop strategies to combat the diseases in such communities. Initiatives such as the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea which recommends an interrelated approach for the elimination of preventable diarrhoea and pneumonia deaths should be adopted. KEYWORDS: HIV; acute respiratory infections; demographic and health surveys; diarrhoea; multilevel analysis; sub-Saharan Africa