|Alcohol consumption and sleep deprivation among Ghanaian adults: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey|
||Sanni Yaya, Ruoxi Wang, Tang Shangfeng, and Bishwajit Ghose
||PeerJ, 6: e5750; DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5750
||Heavy consumption of alcohol has shown to be associated with sleep disturbances among adult and elderly people in high income settings. So far, the relationship between alcohol drinking and sleeping pattern has not been studied in an African setting. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether alcohol consumption has any influence on sleeping hours among adult men and women in Ghana.
Data for this survey were extracted from Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS 2008). GDHS is the only cross-sectional survey conducted on men and women aged above 15 years that collected information on variables such as sleeping hours and alcohol consumption. The analysis was controlled for various demographic, socioeconomic, household level factors, and smoking.
Prevalence of sleeping 1–3 h, 4–6 h, and >7 h was respectively 1.5% (1.2–2.0), 14.1% (12–16.5), and 84.4% (82.1–86.4), and that of alcohol use was 26.9% (23.4–30.6). In the multivariable regression analysis, compared with non-drinkers, those reported drinking had significantly lower odds of sleeping for at least 7 h. In the adjusted model, drinkers had 0.8 times (adjusted OR = 0.803, (95% CI [0.690–0.935])) lower odds of sleeping for at least 7 h. The odds for sleeping 4–6 h were not statistically significant. In the stratified analysis, the odds of sleeping for at least seven were comparatively lower among women (adjusted OR = 0.657, (95% CI [0.509–0.849]) then among men (adjusted OR = 0.867, (95% CI [0.740–0.965]).
Men and women who reported consuming alcohol had significantly lower odds of getting adequate sleep (>7 h). The sleep-disrupting effect of alcohol appeared to be more prominent among women than among men. Currently there is not sufficient evidence on alcohol consumption and sleep disorder among Ghanaian population or any other country in the region. Further studies are required to understand sleeping patterns and the burden of alcohol drinking in this population to design intervention programs.