|Effects of geographic and economic heterogeneity on the burden of rotavirus diarrhea and the impact and cost-effectiveness of vaccination in Pakistan|
||Rheingans R, Anderson JD 4th, Bagamian KH, Laytner LA, Pecenka CJ, Gilani SSA, and Ahmed M
||Vaccine, pii: S0264-410X(18)30172-5; DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.02.008
||Globally, rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea and related mortality. Although rotavirus vaccination has been introduced in many countries worldwide, there are numerous low- to middle-income countries that have not yet introduced. Pakistan is one of the countries with the highest number of rotavirus deaths in children under five years. Although rotavirus infection is almost universal among children, mortality is often a result of poor nutrition and lack of access to health care and other aspects of poverty. We assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of introducing childhood rotavirus vaccination in Pakistan. We use household data from the 2012-2013 Demographic Health survey in Pakistan to estimate heterogeneity in rotavirus mortality risk, vaccination benefits, and cost-effectiveness across geographic and economic groups. We estimate two-dose rotavirus vaccination coverage that would be distributed through a routine vaccination program. In addition, we estimate rotavirus mortality (burden), and other measures of vaccine cost-effectiveness and impact by subpopulations of children aggregated by region and economic status. Results indicate that the highest estimated regional rotavirus burden is in Sindh (3.3 rotavirus deaths/1000 births) and Balochistan (3.1 rotavirus deaths/1000 births), which also have the lowest estimated vaccination coverage, particularly for children living in the poorest households. In Pakistan, introduction could prevent 3061 deaths per year with current routine immunization patterns at an estimated $279/DALY averted. Increases in coverage to match the region with highest coverage (Islamabad) could prevent an additional 1648 deaths per year. Vaccination of children in the highest risk regions could result in a fourfold mortality reduction as compared to low risk children, and children in the poorest households have a three to four times greater mortality reduction benefit than the richest. Based on the analysis presented here, the benefits and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination can be maximized by reaching economically and geographically vulnerable children.
Cost-effectiveness; Disparities; Equity; Pakistan; Rotavirus; Vaccination