|HIV testing during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ethiopia|
||Ejigu Y, and Tadesse B
||PLOS ONE , 13(8): e0201886; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201886
HIV testing during pregnancy provides an entry point to prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to access treatment for HIV positive women. The study aimed to assess the uptake of HIV testing during pregnancy and associated factors among Ethiopian women.
We analyzed the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey dataset. Women who gave birth within one year prior to the survey were included in the analysis. Uptake of HIV testing during pregnancy is defined as receiving HIV testing service during pregnancy and/or at the time of delivery and knew the test results. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by using step-wise backward logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with HIV testing during pregnancy.
A total of 2114 women who were pregnant in the last one year prior to the survey were included in the analysis. Of these, only 35.1% were tested for HIV and received the test results during pregnancy. About one third of women who had antenatal care follow-up missed the opportunity to be tested for HIV. Compared to women who had no formal education, those who had primary level education (AOR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.12-2.15), secondary level education (AOR = 2.56 95%CI: 1.36-3.82), or higher education (AOR = 3.95, 95%CI: 1.31-11.95) were more likely to be tested for HIV during pregnancy. Similarly, having awareness about mother-to-child transmission of HIV (AOR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.48-2.78), and living in urban areas (AOR = 3.30, 95%CI: 1.39-7.85) were positively and independently associated with uptake of HIV during pregnancy. Women who have stigmatizing attitude towards HIV positive people were less likely to be tested for HIV (AOR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.40-0.79).
Uptake of HIV testing during pregnancy is low. Missed opportunity among women who had antenatal care visits was very high. Integrating HIV testing with antenatal care services, improving HIV testing service quality and access are essential to increase uptake of HIV testing during pregnancy and reach the goal of eliminating MTCT.