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Association between population mean and distribution of deviance in demographic surveys from 65 countries: cross sectional study
Authors: Fahad Razak, SV Subramanian, Shohinee Sarma, Ichiro Kawachi, Lisa Berkman, George Davey Smith, and Daniel J Corsi
Source: BMJ Open, 362:k3147; DOI: 10.1136/bmj.k3147
Topic(s): Population density
Country: More than one region
  Multiple Regions
Published: AUG 2018
Abstract: Objectives To examine whether conditions related to scarcity at the left side of the distribution (anaemia, severe chronic energy deficiency, and underweight) are as strongly related to population means as conditions of excess at the right side of the distribution (overweight and obesity). Design Observational study. Setting 65 countries, with nationally representative cross sectional data from 1994 to 2014 obtained from the Demographic Health Surveys. Participants Non-pregnant women aged 20-49. Sample of 65 countries and n=524?380 for analysis of BMI; sample of 44 countries and n=316?465 for analysis of haemoglobin. Main outcome measures The association between mean and prevalence of each category. For BMI, prevalence of severe chronic energy deficiency (SCED, BMI <16.0), underweight (BMI <18.5), overweight (BMI >25) and obese (BMI >30.) were measured; for haemoglobin, prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <12.0 g/dL) and severe anaemia (haemoglobin <8.0 g/dL) were examined. Results There was a strong association between mean BMI and prevalence of overweight (r2=0.98; r=0.99; ß=8.3 (8.0 to 8.6)) and obesity (r2=0.93; r=0.97; ß=4.2 (3.9 to 4.5)). For left sided conditions, a moderate to strong association was found between mean BMI and prevalence of underweight (r2=0.67; r=-0.82; ß=-2.7 (-3.1 to -2.2)), and a weaker association for SCED (r2=0.38; r=-0.61; ß=-0.32 (-0.43 to -0.22)). There was a moderate association between mean haemoglobin and prevalence of anaemia (r2=0.46; r=-0.68; ß=-10.8 (-14.5 to -7.1)) and a weaker association with severe anaemia (r2=0.30; r=-0.55; ß=-0.55 (-0.81 to -0.29)). Conclusions The associations between population means and prevalence of conditions of scarcity such as low BMI and anaemia were substantially weaker than the associations of mean BMI with conditions of excesses such as overweight and obesity.