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Estimated Change in Prevalence of Hypertension in Nepal Following Application of the 2017 ACC/AHA Guideline
Authors: Gulam Muhammed Al Kibria, Krystal Swasey, Angela KC, Mohammadhassan Mirbolouk, Muhammad Nazmus Sakib, Atia Sharmeen, Mahmuda Jahan Chadni, and Kristen A. Stafford
Source: JAMA Network Open, 1(3):e180606; DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0606
Topic(s): Blood pressure
Country: Asia
Published: JUL 2018
Abstract: Importance The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults lowered the systolic and diastolic blood pressure thresholds for hypertension to 130 and 80 mm Hg, respectively. This represents a reduction of 10 mm Hg in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels used to define hypertension compared with previous guidelines, such as the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7). Objectives To estimate the prevalence of hypertension among adults aged 18 years or older in Nepal per the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline and to determine the absolute difference in hypertension prevalence comparing the 2017 ACC/AHA and JNC 7 guidelines. Design, Setting, and Participants The cross-sectional analysis used data from the population-based 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Data were collected from June 2016 to January 2017 using a multistage stratified sampling procedure that was applied in urban and rural areas, using wards as the primary sampling units. Individuals aged 15 years or older from selected households were interviewed. The survey had an overall response rate of approximately 97%. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the prevalence of hypertension. Blood pressure was measured 3 times for each participant with 5-minute intervals between. Hypertension was present if blood pressure was greater than or equal to 130/80 mm Hg for the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline, and greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg for the JNC 7 guideline. Results Among 13?519 participants (median [interquartile range] age, 38 [26-53] years; 7821 [57.9%] female), 44.2% (95% CI, 43.4%-45.0%; n?=?5977) had hypertension according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline compared with 21.2% (95% CI, 20.5%-21.9%; n?=?2869) by the JNC 7 guideline. The new prevalence was associated with an absolute increase of 23.0% (95% CI, 22.3%-23.7%) from the JNC 7 guideline. When estimating the proportion of hypertension by background characteristics, the new 2017 ACC/AHA guideline definition increased the prevalence to 50% or greater for some categories, with the highest prevalence among those with a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) greater than or equal to 30 (71.6%; 95% CI, 67.7%-75.3%) and between 25 and 29.9 (62.1%; 95% CI, 60.1%-64.1%). Conclusions and Relevance For adults in Nepal, the new 2017 ACC/AHA guideline reveals a greater estimated prevalence of hypertension compared with the JNC 7 guideline. Because of the public health significance of hypertension, higher prevalence rates confirm the importance of developing effective prevention and control methods in this country.