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Women's Work, Gender Roles, and Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria
Authors: Gage AJ, and Thomas NJ
Source: Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(7):1923-1938. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-1023-4
Topic(s): Employment
Gender-based violence (GBV)
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)
Country: Africa
Published: OCT 2017
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of women's labor force participation to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the past 12 months, using data for 20,635 currently married women aged 15-49 years from the 2013 nationally representative Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models of sexual and physical IPV, with interactions between women's work and social norms regarding traditional gender roles, were developed. Approximately 23% of women aged 15-49 years reported IPV victimization in the past 12 months. Results revealed that non-cash work relative to unemployment was positively associated with both forms of IPV victimization, after controlling for other factors. Women's engagement in cash work was positively correlated with sexual IPV. The positive association between cash work and physical IPV victimization was significantly larger for women who resided in localities with greater male approval of wife beating. In localities where husband-dominated decision making was more common, a spousal education gap that favored husbands was more positively associated with sexual IPV. The findings call for integrated IPV prevention and economic empowerment programs that consider gender norms and gender-role beliefs and are adapted to the locality setting, in order to promote social environments in which women can reap the full benefits of their economic empowerment. KEYWORDS: Employment; Gender roles; Intimate partner violence; Nigeria; Social norms