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The Differential Effects of an Opt-Out HIV Testing Policy for Pregnant Women in Ethiopia When Accounting for Stigma: Secondary Analysis of DHS Data
Authors: Michelle R. Kaufman, Alyssa Mooney, Lakew Abebe Gebretsadik, Morankar N. Sudhakar, Rachel Rieder, Rupali J. Limaye, Eshetu Girma, and Rajiv N. Rimal
Source: Prevention Science, 18(2): 245–252; DOI:
Topic(s): Antenatal care
HIV testing
Maternal health
Country: Africa
Published: FEB 2017
Abstract: Individual factors associated with HIV testing have been studied across multiple populations; however, testing is not just an individual-level phenomenon. This secondary analysis of 2005 and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data was conducted to determine the extent to which the 2007 institution of an opt-out policy of HIV testing during antenatal care increased testing among women, and whether effects differed by women’s stigmatizing beliefs about HIV. A logit model with interaction between pre-/post-policy year and policy exposure (birth in the past year) was used to estimate the increased probability of past-year testing, which may be attributable to the policy. Results suggested the policy contributed to a nine-point increase in the probability of testing (95% CI 0.06–0.13, p?