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Health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with Jamkesmas health insurance in Indonesia: a mixed-methods study
Authors: Mohamad I. Brooks, Hasbullah Thabrany, Matthew P. Fox, Veronika J. Wirtz, Frank G. Feeley, and Lora L. Sabin
Source: BMC Health Services Research, 17:105; DOI:
Topic(s): Delivery care
Health care utilization
Maternal health
Country: Asia
Published: FEB 2017
Abstract: Background The growing momentum for quality and affordable health care for all has given rise to the recent global universal health coverage (UHC) movement. As part of Indonesia’s strategy to achieve the goal of UHC, large investments have been made to increase health access for the poor, resulting in the implementation of various health insurance schemes targeted towards the poor and near-poor, including the Jamkesmas program. In the backdrop of Indonesia’s aspiration to reach UHC is the high rate of maternal mortality that disproportionally affects poor women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with and without Jamkesmas and explore perceived barriers to health insurance membership and maternal health service utilization. Methods We used a mixed-methods design. Utilizing data from the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (n?=?45,607), secondary analysis using propensity score matching was performed on key outcomes of interest: health facility delivery (HFD) and skilled birth delivery (SBD). In-depth interviews (n?= 51) were conducted in the provinces of Jakarta and Banten among poor women, midwives, and government representatives. Thematic framework analysis was performed on qualitative data to explore perceived barriers. Results In 2012, 63.0% of women did not have health insurance; 19.1% had Jamkesmas. Poor women with Jamkesmas were 19% (OR?=?1.19 [1.03–1.37]) more likely to have HFD and 17% (OR?=?1.17 [1.01–1.35]) more likely to have SBD compared to poor women without insurance. Qualitative interviews highlighted key issues, including: lack of proper documentation for health insurance registration; the preference of pregnant women to deliver in their parents’ village; the use of traditional birth attendants; distance to health facilities; shortage of qualified health providers; overcrowded health facilities; and lack of health facility accreditation. Conclusions Poor women with Jamkesmas membership had a modest increase in HFD and SBD. These findings are consistent with economic theory that health insurance coverage can reduce financial barriers to care and increase service uptake. However, factors such as socio-cultural beliefs, accessibility, and quality of care are important elements that need to be addressed as part of the national UHC agenda to improve maternal health services in Indonesia. Keywords Health insurance – Universal health coverage – Jamkesmas – Indonesia – Poor – Maternal health – Health facility delivery – Institutional delivery – Skilled birth delivery – Skilled birth attendant