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Linkages between public health and changing air quality levels in the Light of governance efficiency: A state level analysis of India
Authors: Roy Shamindra Nath
Source: International Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume: 2 Issue: 4 Pages: 1852-1866
Topic(s): Climate
Country: Asia
Published: JAN 2012
Abstract: The present study attempts to trace out the multilateral relation between the levels of air pollution, health related hazards as well as the function of the Governance in terms of expenditure performance in mitigating climate change and environmental policies. An additional attempt has been done to trace out the role of locational factors in affecting the pollution induced health hazards across the states. Databases have been collected from Compendium of Environmental Statistics published by CSO (Central Statistical Organization), Planning Commission and the National Family Health Survey I, II and III to capture the changing scenario of air quality levels, health related hazards and Government responses from 1992–93 to 2005–06.. In order to capture the aggregative effect of pollution level, especially air pollution, an Integrated Air-Quality Index have been constructed at the state-level on the basis of ‘Exceedance Factors’ by using the reference of CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) safe limits. However, a separate Health-related Hazard Index has been calculated using the First Principal Component Method. Simple process response models and multistep regression models have been used which shows the net effect of changing air quality over the health related hazards, the effect of locational differentiation as well as the Government's efficiency to mitigate it. Results show locational variations in air pollution across the state that has statistically significant net effect over the health hazards. However, government policies in terms of expenditure functions also shows moderately strong relationship with the pollution level incurred, referring a significant association between the trio. Significant discrepancies have been also noted between the two NFHS rounds in terms of Government's mitigation measures to health hazards. The study opines that a proper convergence of public policies in health, urban planning or environmental planning will be useful to cater the problem. Keywords Health Hazards, Air Quality Index, Exceedance Factor, Governance Efficiency, Multistep Regression