|Hidden burden of non-medical spending associated with inpatient care among the poor in Afghanistan|
||Mohammad Omar Mashal, Keiko Nakamura, and Masashi Kizuki
||International Journal of Public Health, pp 1-11, First online: 18 May 2016, DOI: 10.1007/s00038-016-0833-9
Health care utilization
To elucidate the household payments required for medical and non-medical spending for inpatient health care and examine the pattern of household payments according to household economic status and the degree of remoteness of the area of residence.
The subjects were 5940 individuals included in a nationally representative survey in 2010. Their medical (diagnosis and medicine) and non-medical (accommodation and transportation) expenses for their most recent hospitalization were analyzed.
Compared with the richest group, the poorest group paid less for diagnosis and medicine (AOR = 0.37, P < 0.001; AOR = 0.78, P = 0.009, respectively), paid similar amounts for accommodation (AOR = 1.19, P = 0.164), and more for transportation (AOR = 2.09, P < 0.001). Residents in urban areas paid less than residents in rural areas for accommodation and transportation (AOR = 0.73, P < 0.001; AOR = 0.58, P < 0.001, respectively).
Poor households paid less for diagnosis and medicine, but more for transportation related to inpatient care. Non-medical spending for inpatient care among the poor should be considered for affordable and accessible health-care utilization.
Afghanistan, Financial burden, Medical and non-medical payments, Poor