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The nutrition transition in Colombia over a decade: a novel household classification system of anthropometric measures
Authors: Diana C Parra, Lora Iannotti, Luis F Gomez, Helena Pachón, Debra Haire-Joshu, Olga L Sarmiento, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann, and Ross C Brownson
Source: Archives of Public Health, 73(1): 12. doi: 10.1186/s13690-014-0057-5
Topic(s): Nutrition
Country: Latin American/Caribbean
Published: FEB 2015
Abstract: Background Overweight and underweight increase the risk of metabolic impairments and chronic disease. Interventions at the household level require the diagnosis of nutritional status among family members. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and patterns of various anthropometric typologies over a decade in Colombia using a novel approach that considers all children in the household as well as the mother. This approach also allows identifying a dual burden of malnutrition within a household, where one child may be overweight and another one undernourished. Methods This study used data from the Demographic and Health Survey and the Colombian National Nutrition Survey [2000 n=2,876, 2005 n=8,598, and 2010 n=11,349]. Four mutually exclusive household (HH) anthropometric typologies - normal, undernourished, overweight/obese, and dual burden - were created. Anthropometric information of height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and body-mass-index-for-age Z-scores (BMIz) in children under the age of 5 y, and on body mass index (BMI) in mothers, 18–49 y was used. Results Prevalence of overweight/obese HHs increased between 2000 (38.2%) and 2010 (43.1%) (p<0.05), while undernourished and dual burden HHs significantly decreased between 2005 (13.7% and 10.6%, respectively) and 2010 (3.5% and 5.1%, respectively) (p<0.05). A greater increase of overweight/obesity was observed for the lowest quintile of wealth index (WI), with an increase of almost 10% between 2000 and 2010, compared to 2% and 4% for the fourth and highest WI, respectively. Although in 2010 there is still a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity HHs in urban areas (43.7%), the prevalence of overweight/obesity HHs in rural areas increased sharply between 2000 (34.3%) and 2010 (41.6%) (p<0.05). Conclusion The observed prevalence of dual burden households was not different from the expected prevalence. Results from this study indicate that although overweight/obesity continues to be more prevalent among high-income Colombian households, it is growing at a faster pace among the most economically disadvantaged. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13690-014-0057-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, Nutrition transition, Stunting, Dual burden, Malnutrition, Colombia