|Coverage, timeliness, and determinants of immunization completion in Pakistan: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey (2006–07)|
||Zaidi SM, Khowaja S, Kumar Dharma V, Khan AJ, Chandir S.
||Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 10(6):1712-20. doi: 10.4161/hv.28621.
Immunization coverage data and determinants for completion are not well described for Pakistan. This study determines immunization coverage rates and timeliness based on the 2006-07 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and identifies determinants for completion of immunizations.
DHS data from 9177 randomly selected households from across Pakistan were analyzed to assess immunization coverage and timeliness for children aged 0-5 years, and to investigate determinants of immunization completion through logistic regressions.
The proportion of children immunized for a third dose of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3) was 80.3%, and combination diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines (DTP3) was 55.9%. Measles coverage was 62.5%. Late immunizations were most likely to occur for third doses of the OPV (65.5%) and DTP series (65.5%). Early doses were most likely to be administered for measles (21.9%). The proportion of children not immunized for any vaccine was 6.2%. Receiving a dose of maternal tetanus was a major determinant for immunization completion for OPV3 (OR 1.35, 95% CI: 1.14-1.60), DTP3 (OR 2.54, 95% CI: 2.13-3.02), and measles (OR 2.78, 95% CI: 2.27-3.40). Other independent variables associated with improved immunization completion included higher household wealth and maternal education.
Poor routine immunization coverage and timeliness were identified through the DHS in Pakistan. Encouraging maternal tetanus uptake among women of child-bearing age and greater integration of immunization services with antenatal care may help improve childhood immunization completion.
Demographic Health Survey; Pakistan; immunization coverage; immunization determinants; immunization timeliness