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A Study of Gender Differentials in the Prevalence of Tuberculosis Based on NFHS-2 and NFHS-3 Data.
Authors: Sharma, P. P.; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Padam
Source: Indian Journal of Community Medicine, Apr2010, Vol. 35 Issue 2, p230-237, 8p, DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.66869
Topic(s): Gender
Country: Asia
Published: APR 2010
Abstract: Abstract: Background: Worldwide, the case notification rate of tuberculosis has been reported to be higher for men than women. In India also, the prevalence of TB is higher among males as compared to females but it is important to study the trend of gender gap in the prevalence of tuberculosis over the years. Objective: To examine the trend in gender gap in the prevalence of TB over the years. Materials and Methods: The unit level data of NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) has been utilized. Gender gap in the prevalence of TB has been estimated for the two rounds of the surveys. The delta (d), the difference in gender gap in two surveys, has been estimated and decomposed by background characteristics such as place of residence(urban/rural), religion (Hindus/Muslims/others), caste(SC/ST/OBC/others) and standard of living(SLI) (low/medium/high) categories. Main Findings: Overall, the prevalence of TB has remained almost same in the two surveys [432/lakh in NFHS-2 and 418/lakh in NFHJS-3; Z=1.19, P=0.275. The gender gap has increased to 217/lakh in NFHS-3 in comparison to 145 per lakh in NFHS-2. The increase in gender gap is significantly higher in rural areas [of 98 per lakh;167/ lakh in NFHS-2 vs 265/lakh in NFHS-3; P<0.05] as compared to corresponding increase in urban areas [of 30 per lakh; 88/ lakh in NFHS-2 vs 118/ lakh in NFHS-3, P>0.05]. The increase in delta (d) (difference in gender gap in two surveys) is accounted for as 88% by the rural areas and 12% by the urban areas. Conclusion: The increase in gender gap in the prevalence of TB is more in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The increase in rural areas is mainly contributed by Hindus, SC and ST and low and medium SLI categories and in urban areas, the contribution is mainly by Hindus, other castes and high SLI categories. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]